164 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. Tartars, and its remoteness in comparison with China and Persia, probably saved Western Europe. But the Mongols riveted their yoke on Russia and for two centuries its national life was arrested, while it received that Oriental tinge1 which is so apparent to the western European ; or, as Gibbon expresses it, " the deep and perhaps indelible mark which a servitude of two hundred years has imprinted on the character of the Russians/' The Campaign of Jalal-u-Din in India, A.H. 619 (1222). —Having effected his escape from Chengiz Khan by swimming the Indus, Jalal-u-Din collected the remnants of his army to the number of two thousand men, who were destitute of everything but valour. Thanks to this virtue, they were able to rearm and remount themselves, and Jalal-u-Din, learning that he was being pursued by two Mongol divisions, retreated towards Delhi. Its ruler Shams-u-Din Altamish,2 the best known and most capable member of the so-called " Slave Kings,'7 sent the Sultan splendid gifts, with the hint that the climate of Delhi would not suit his health and that he had better establish himself at Multan. Jalal-u-Din, finding Delhi inhospit- able, perforce retraced his steps, and invaded Sind with the aid of reinforcements which had reached him from Persia. But the Slave King was determined not to allow so redoubtable a soldier to establish himself even in the territory of a rival, and a league of Indian princes was formed to drive him out. Thereupon Jalal-u-Din, seeing that resistance to such a combination was hopeless, decided to return to Persia. His Return to Persia, A.H. 620 (1223).—The daunt- less Sultan traversed Makran. more or less in the foot- steps of Alexander the Great, and like him lost the greater part of his army in its deserts, so that he reached Kerman with only four thousand men. His arrival happened to coincide with the moment at which Borak Hajib, having killed the former Governor, was besieging the capital, and the city opened its gates to Jalal-u-Din. Borak Hajib, to whom we shall return later, at first 1 There are about five million Tartars still resident in European Russia and it similar number ofjews. • 2 Mohamedan Dynasties, p. 295.